GHANA / NIGERIA / ZIMBABWE

Ethnically Nigerians and Ghanaians share very little. Hausa traders historically came From Northern Nigeria to trade for Gold and Kola nuts with the Akan people . The Portuguese also supplied the Akan of Ghana with numerous enslaved people from modern day Nigeria in the early 1500’s.

“a great number of slaves who were bartered very profitably at El Mina. The labor of these slaves enabled the Akan to expand gold production by developing deep-level mining in addition to panning alluvial soils. Even more importantly, slave labor enabled the Akan to undertake the immensely laborious task of clearing the dense forests of southern Ghana for farming

This helped the Akan who were previously hunter-gathers and Farmers become larger scale farmers.

Post-Colonial

Many Nigerians began moving to Ghana after Ghana became the first independent country in the region in 1957. The relationship became sour when the flow began to shift the demographics of the country and the people became unhappy. Thus, under former Ghanaian president Busia’s Aliens Compliance Order of 1969 Nigerians and other immigrants were forced to leave Ghana as they made up 20 percent of Ghana’s population at the time. In 1983, Nigeria deported up to 1 million Ghanaian and other African immigrants when Ghana was facing severe drought and economic problems, and another 300,000 in early 1985 on short notice. This further strained relations between the two countries. In April 1988, a joint commission for cooperation was established between Ghana and Nigeria. A bloodless coup in August 1985 had brought Major General Ibrahim Babangida to power in Nigeria, and Rawlings took advantage of the change of administration to pay an official visit. The two leaders discussed a wide range of issues focusing on peace and prosperity within West Africa, bilateral trade, and the transition to democracy in both countries. In early January 1989, Babangida reciprocated with an official visit to Ghana, which the PNDC hailed as a watershed in Ghana–Nigeria relations.

Subsequent setbacks that Babangida initiated in the democratic transition process in Nigeria clearly disappointed Accra. Nonetheless, the political crisis that followed Babangida’s annulment of the results of the June 1993 Nigerian presidential election and Babangida’s resignation from the army and presidency two months later did not significantly alter the existing close relations between Ghana and Nigeria, two of the most important members of ECOWAS and the Commonwealth of Nations. After the takeover in November 1993 by General Sani Abacha as the new Nigerian head of state, Ghana and Nigeria continued to consult on economic, political, and security issues affecting the two countries and West Africa as a whole. Between early August 1994 when Rawlings became ECOWAS chairman and the end of the following October, the Ghanaian president visited Nigeria three times to discuss the peace process in Liberia and measures to restore democracy in that country.

Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe ( /zɪmˈbɑːbweɪ/ zim-bahb-we; officially the Republic of Zimbabwe and formerly Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia, the Republic of Rhodesia, and Zimbabwe Rhodesia) is a landlocked country located in the southern part of the African continent, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. Zimbabwe has three official languages: English, Shona and Ndebele.
Zimbabwe began as the British crown colony of Southern Rhodesia, created from land held by the British South Africa Company. President Robert Mugabe is the head of State and Commander in Chief of the armed forces. Morgan Tsvangirai is the Prime Minister. Mugabe has been in power since the country’s internationally-recognized independence in 1980.

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