Many casualties in Texas Waco fertiliser plant blast

Scores of people are injured and an unknown number are dead after a huge explosion at a fertiliser plant near Waco in the US state of Texas.

Dozens of homes and buildings have been destroyed, and several are still on fire, after the West Fertilizer plant exploded at about 19:50 (00:50 GMT).

Some people are thought still to be trapped in buildings and a number of firefighters are reported missing.

Emergency services officials said ammonia may have caused the explosion.

It has been reported the company had 54,000lbs (20 tonnes) of anhydrous ammonia on sit

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It was like being in a tornado. Stuff was flying everywhere. It blew out my windshield. It was like the whole earth shook.”

Debby Marak, witness

Firefighters had been tackling a blaze at the plant when the explosion in West, a town of about 2,700 people some 20 miles (32km) north of Waco, occurred.

Police said the half the town had been evacuated, amid fears of possible further explosions or a leak of toxic gas.

The plant is right on the edge of town, only a few hundred metres from houses, a school and nursing home.

Sgt William Swanton of the Waco police department said power to the town had been shut off to prevent further accidents.

He confirmed there were deaths, but could not give a figure.

Police have been conducting house-to-house searches to check for casualties.

‘Like a war zone’

TV images showed streams of emergency vehicles descending on the site and ambulance crews using a nearby sports field as an emergency treatment area. The injured were being carried to hospital not just in ambulances but in police squad cars and helicopters.

Glenn A Robinson, chief executive of Hillcrest Baptist Medical Center in Waco, told CNN that his hospital had received 66 injured people including 38 who were seriously hurt.

He said the hospital was seeing “everything from orthopaedic injuries to patients that are experiencing serious blood loss”.

McLennan County Sheriff Parnell McNamara said: “It’s a lot of devastation. I’ve never seen anything like this. It looks like a war zone with all the debris.”

A nursing home was caught in the explosion and some people were believed trapped inside.

Witness Debby Marak told the Associated Press news agency that she had seen smoke coming from the area near the plant and had driven over to see what was happening.

She said that when she arrived, two boys ran towards her screaming that the authorities had told them to leave because the fertiliser plant was going to explode.

She said she drove a short distance before the blast happened.

“It was like being in a tornado,” she said. “Stuff was flying everywhere. It blew out my windshield. It was like the whole earth shook.”The massive blast was heard from miles around

Another resident told KWTX-TV that she heard several explosions from 13 miles (20km) away.

“It sounded like three bombs going off very close to us,” said Lydia Zimmerman.

Texas Governor Rick Perry said in a statement: “We are monitoring developments and gathering information as details continue to emerge about this incident.

“We have also mobilised state resources to help local authorities. Our thoughts and prayers are with the people of West, and the first responders on the scene.”

The Dallas Morning News reported that West Fertilizer had told the Environmental Protection Agency that it presented no risk of fire or explosion.

The newspaper said it had seen documents in which the plant said it stored large amounts of anhydrous ammonia, but the worst scenario envisaged was a release of ammonia gas that would harm no-one._67075622_texas_factory_explosion_624

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By evakel Posted in News Tagged

Cameras help turn tables into touchscreens

Any paper document can be turned into an interactive touchscreen using a projection and camera system developed by Fujitsu._67032013_fujitsu

The system lets users instantly copy text and photographs by using a finger to draw a box around them.

The digital copies can then be moved, edited and manipulated as if they were on a tablet or large touchscreen.

Fujitsu said it hoped to release a commercial version of the imaging technology in 2014.

The camera and projector forming the system are built into a stand that sits on a tabletop and monitors documents and the fingers of users in front of them. The cameras spot where fingers are placed and uses software to interpret what people want to do to the map, sticky note, photograph or other paper document.

A projector projects virtual buttons on to the tabletop that people can press with a fingertip to start copying or to perform other actions. The projector also illuminates the sections people want to highlight and projects copies of the text or image they want to grab.

Virtual copies of items can be “stored” to one side of the table and then moved around, expanded, shrunk and manipulated by a user. Fujitsu said the system could be useful for helping to organise notes from meetings or research projects.

One key breakthrough, it said, was using cameras offset from each other slightly. This helped them get a much better idea of where fingers were in order to spot accurately what a user wanted to highlight or copy.

Fujitsu said its system could be used as a way to enhance current computer interface systems or, eventually, to replace the keyboard and mouse. Prior attempts to do this, it said, had relied on expensive sensors but its system used off-the-shelf projectors and cameras, even webcams, suggesting any commercial model would be easy to produce.

Apple computers ‘hacked’ in breach

Apple has said its computers were attacked by the same hackers who targeted Facebook.

The iPhone-maker said a small number of its machines were affected, but added there was “no evidence” of data theft.

Last week Facebook said it had traced a cyber attack back to China which had infiltrated employees’ laptops.

Apple said it would release a software update to protect customers against the malicious software used in the attack.

In a statement, the Cupertino, California-based firm said: “Apple has identified malware which infected a limited number of Mac systems through a vulnerability in the Java plug-in for browsers.

“The malware was employed in an attack against Apple and other companies, and was spread through a website for software developers.

“We identified a small number of systems within Apple that were infected and isolated them from our network. There is no evidence that any data left Apple.

“We are working closely with law enforcement to find the source of the malware.”

Java vulnerabilities

News of the hack comes as a US-based cyber security firm claimed to have pinpointed a specific building in Shanghai that was being used to house one of the world’s “most prolific cyber espionage groups”.

Mandiant said Unit 61398, part of the country’s People’s Liberation Army, was believed to have “systematically stolen hundreds of terabytes of data” from at least 141 organisations around the world.

China denied hacking and questioned the validity of Mandiant’s report.

Apple said it had taken measures to protect users from vulnerabilities in Java, a widely-used programming language that was found to have serious security flaws.

“Since OS X Lion, Macs have shipped without Java installed, and as an added security measure OS X automatically disables Java if it has been unused for 35 days,” the company said.

“To protect Mac users that have installed Java, today we are releasing an updated Java malware removal tool that will check Mac systems and remove this malware if found.”

WordPress website targeted by hackers

WordPress has been attacked by a botnet of “tens of thousands” of individual computers since last week, according to server hosters Cloudflare and Hostgator.

The botnet targets WordPress users with the username “admin”, trying thousands of possible passwords.

The attack began a week after WordPress beefed up its security with an optional two-step authentication log-in option.

The site currently powers 64m websites read by 371m people each month.

According to survey website W3Techs, around 17% of the world’s websites are powered by WordPress.

“Here’s what I would recommend: If you still use ‘admin’ as a username on your blog, change it, use a strong password,” wrote WordPress founder Matt Mullenweg on his blog.

He also advised adopting two-step authentication, which involves a personalised “secret number” allocated to users in addition to a username and password, and ensuring that the latest version of WordPress is installed.

“Most other advice isn’t great – supposedly this botnet has more than 90,000 IP addresses, so an IP-limiting or login-throttling plugin isn’t going to be great (they could try from a different IP [address] a second for 24 hours),” Mr Mullenweg added.

Matthew Prince, chief executive and co-founder of Cloudflare, said that the aim of the attack might have been to build a stronger botnet.

“One of the concerns of an attack like this is that the attacker is using a relatively weak botnet of home PCs in order to build a much larger botnet of beefy servers in preparation for a future attack,” he wrote in a blog post.

“These larger machines can cause much more damage in DDoS [Distributed Denial of Service] attacks because the servers have large network connections and are capable of generating significant amounts of traffic,” he added.

Structure of the MP systems

To work with MP system we need several chips, which may be build in the CPU chip or may be put in the own cases on Motherboard. Nonprogrammable LIS -Ladge integrated sheme (clock pulse generator,creators of the bandages etc.) we left for individual study.
We will study two programmable LIS -The timer and the parlallel interface(PPI).

Microprocessor Architectures

Microprocessor Architectures
 
Intel
The Early Intel Microprocessors
The first microprocessor to appear in the market was the Intel 4004, a 4-bit data bus device.
This device was followed by the 8008, which had an 8-bit data bus.
Two more 8-bit microprocessors (reference to the number of bits usually refers to the data bus
unless stated otherwise), the 8080 and 8085 were introduced in the mid-1970s. These two devices
could address only 216 memory locations.
 
The 80X86 Family of Microprocessors
Since its introduction in 1978, the so-called X86 architecture has undergo five major
evolutionary stages. The term architecture in relation to microprocessors refers to the internal design
and organization of the device.
The first generation of the 80X86 family includes the 8086, the 8088, and the 80186. Next,
came the 80286, followed by the 80386, and then the 80486. The Pentium is the fifth generation Intel
microprocessor. Each generation built upon the basic concept of the first additional features and
improved performance.
 
Intel 8086/8088 and 80186
  •   Introduced in 1978, the 8086 was the first 80X86 family and is the basis for all Intel microprocessors that followed.
  •   The 8086 was a 16-bit microprocessor (16-bit data bus) and represented a significant departure from the earlier 8-bit devices.
  •   Owned 20 address lines (allowing 220 memory locations to be accessed).
  •  The various versions of the 8086 operated at clock frequencies of %, 8, or 10MHz.
  •   The 8088 is essentially an 8086 with the 16-bit internal data bus multiplexed down to an 8-bit external bus. It was intended to meet the demand for applications in simpler 8-bit systems and was used in the original IBM personal computer (PC).
  •   The 80186 is an 8086 with several support functions such as clock generator, system controller, interrupt controller, and direct memory access (DMA) controller integrated on the chip. An increased clock frequency of 12.5MHz was added and the 5MHz available in the 8086/8088 was dropped, resulting in a selection of 8, 10, or 12.5MHz.
 
Intel 80286
  •   Introduced in 1982, the memory addressing capability was increased to 24 address lines.
  •   First Intel processor to include an advanced mode of operation (used in the next generations of microprocessors):protected mode. This mode allows access to additional memory locations and advanced programming features.
  •   It operates at the same clock frequencies as the 80186.
By evakel Posted in CTM Tagged

Welcome

The history of Africa begins with the prehistory of Africa and the emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, continuing into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. Agriculture began about 10,000 BCE and metallurgy in about 4000 BCE. The historyof early civilization arose in Egypt and later in the Maghreb and the Horn of Africa. During the Middle AgesIslam spread through the regions. Crossing the Maghreb and the Sahel, a major centre of Muslim culture was at Timbuktu. States and polities subsequently formed throughout the continent.

From the late 15th century, Europeans and Arabs took slaves from WestCentral and Southeast Africa overseas in the African slave trade. European colonization of Africa developed rapidly in the Scramble for Africa of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Following independence and struggles in many parts of the continent, decolonization took place after the Second World War.

Africa’s history has been a challenge for researchers in the field of African studies because of the scarcity of written sources in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Scholarly techniques such as the recording of oral historyhistorical linguisticsarchaeology and genetics have been crucial.


By evakel Posted in News